Footnotes: The EFF Standards Web Pages

1 Merlin C. Wittrock, "Testing and Recent Research in Cognition," in Testing and Cognition, eds. Merlin C. Wittrock and Eva L. Baker (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991), pp. 11-12. (Source: M.C. Wittrock and R Kelly. "Teaching Reading Comprehension to Adults in Basic Skills Courses." Final Report, University of California at Los Angeles, Graduate School of Education, Vols. 1-3.)

2 Lillian Smith, "Words That Chain Us Words That Set Us Free," in The Winner Names the Age, ed. Michelle Cliff (New York: WW Norton, 1978), p. 149.

3 James Gee. Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses (Bristol, PA: The Falmer Press, 1990), p. 94.

4 Daniel Goleman. Working With Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam Books, 1998), 176.

5 Gary D. Borich, with contributions by Debra Bayles Martin. Observation Skills for Effective Teaching, 3rd ed. (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999), p 7.

6 Kevin Collis and Thomas A. Romberg. "Assessment of Mathematical Performance: An Analysis of Open-Ended Test Items," in Testing and Cognition, pp. 100-101.

7 Jack Mezirow. "How Critical Reflection Triggers Transformative Learning," in Fostering Critical Reflection in Adulthood, ed. Mezirow and Associates (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990), pp. 7-8.

8 Andrea Barrett (1998). The Voyage of the Narwhal. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company), pp. 164-5.

9 Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ (New York: Bantam, 1995), p. 42.

10 Thomas Jefferson (1816) letter to John Adams, in Frances Moore Lappé (1989) Rediscovering American's Values. (New York: Ballantine Books), p. 186.

11 Deborah Johnson (1995). "You Have to Be Able to Make a Difference," in Sondra Stein, ed., Equipped for the Future: A Customer Driven Vision for Adult Literacy and Lifelong Learning.(Washington, DC: NIFL), p. 76.

12 Stewart Levine. Getting to Resolution.(San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 1998), pp. 4-5.

13 Laurent A. Daloz (1999). Effective Teaching and Mentoring. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers), p. 17.

14 Sue E. Berryman, "Education and the Economy: A Diagnostic Review and Implications for the Federal Role," Institute on Education and the Economy, Occasional Paper No. 1, (New York: Columbia University, 1989), p. 17.

15 Claire Weinstein and Debra K. Meyer. "Implications of Cognitive Psychology for Testing: Contributions from Work in Learning Strategies," in Testing and Cognition, p. 41.

16 Robert Fisher. Teaching Thinking: Philosophical Enquiry in the Classroom (London: Cassell, 1998), p. 9.

17 Sylvia Scribner and Patricia Sachs, with Lia Di Bello and Jessica Kindred. "Knowledge Acquisition at Work, " Laboratory for Cognitive Studies of Work, Technical Paper No. 22, (New York: City University of New York, 1991), p.1.

18 Joan N. Burstyn, ed. (1996). Educating Tomorrow's Valuable Citizen. (New York: SUNY Press), p. 195.

19 Part C, Title II, Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. The REA was enacted on October 21, 1998, by P.L. 105-277, the Omnibus Appropriations Act of FY1999.